Hepatology is the medical field that looks at the diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas. Viral hepatitis and heavy alcohol use are largely to blame for acute and chronic conditions such as fatty liver, cirrhosis, and cancer. Utilizing improved screening and administering vaccines to a wide range of people can help to lower the rate of infections.
Autoimmune liver diseases are a group of liver diseases that occur when your body's own immune system starts attacking your liver cells. The three main types of ALD are autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). These diseases can occur at any age and to any sex, both male and female.
Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver which occurs at the terminal stages of chronic liver disease. It is a progressive disease that if left untreated leads to liver failure, a condition where the liver stops its functioning. Cirrhosis does not bring any signs or symptoms until the liver is extensively damaged. As it gets worse, the symptoms may include jaundice, decreased appetite, weight loss, fatigue and weakness, fever, etc.
Cystic condition refers to the formation of abnormal sacs (cysts) in the liver that may contain fluid or a solid mass of cells. In most patients, the cysts are single, although some may have several. The condition which is characterized by several cystic growths on the liver is called polycystic liver disease (PLD). When the cyst enlarges or starts bleeding, it can cause symptoms such as upper abdominal fullness, discomfort, pain, protruding stomach, nausea and vomiting, and shoulder pain.
Fatty Liver Disease is caused by the build-up of fat in the liver. The most common causes of fatty liver disease include heavy alcohol use, obesity, high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and high levels of fat in your blood. This disease can prevent the liver from functioning normally and may lead to liver damage under certain circumstances. The most serious complication resulting from fatty liver disease is liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.
Hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver. Most often, the inflammation is caused by viral infections and it can be Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. However, the inflammation can also result from heavy alcohol use, consumption of certain medications, inherited diseases, and autoimmune disease. Hepatitis can be acute, chronic or fulminant.
It is short-term and resolves in less than six months.
It is long-term and lasts at least for six months.
It is a rare, but life-threatening form of hepatitis. It can cause hepatic coma and also decrease the synthesizing capacity of the liver badly.
Bile duct stones are hard stone-like objects that are present in the duct of the bile system. These stones can get formed in the gallbladder and migrate into the bile duct or they can form in the bile duct itself. If the stones become lodged and obstruct the duct, it can lead to severe discomfort and symptoms like abdominal pain, fever, chills, jaundice, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting, and light-colored stools.
Gallstones are pieces of solid materials that form within the gallbladder. Most often, the gallstones are formed due to high levels of cholesterol in the bile. However, they can also get formed when the chemicals, like calcium bilirubin and calcium carbonate, in the gallbladder, go out of balance. Obesity, consumption of a high fatty or cholesterol-rich diet, being female, and being 40 years or older are some of the factors that increase the risk of gallstone formation.
Inherited liver diseases are a group of diseases that occur when an abnormal gene inherited from one or both of the parents causes various substances to build up in the liver, resulting in liver damage. The two most common inherited liver diseases are Haemochromatosis and Wilson’s disease. Hemochromatosis occurs when the liver and other organs get accumulated with excessive deposits of iron. On the other hand, Wilson’s disease is the result of excessive build up of copper in the liver and other organs.
The subspecialty of onco-hepatology at Fortis provides advanced and comprehensive care for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer that affects the liver. Our multi-disciplinary team consisting of specialists in the field of hepatology, oncology, radiology, and pathology offers 360° care for our liver cancer patients by using the most advanced facilities and therapies at our disposal. The team also offers dedicated and continued care - monitoring for cancer recurrence and maximizing the outcomes for cancer survivors.
Pancreatitis is a condition that is characterized by inflammation of the pancreas. It can occur in two forms - acute and chronic. In Acute pancreatitis, the inflammation appears suddenly and lasts for a short time. In Chronic pancreatitis, the inflammation comes back consistently or lasts for months or even several years. Pain in the upper abdominal area is the primary symptom of both acute and chronic pancreatitis.
Hepatology is a medical specialty focusing on the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management of diseases that affect the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and the bile ducts.
Liver function tests are a group of blood tests that are performed to diagnose and monitor liver disease or damage. These tests measure the levels of certain proteins and enzymes in your blood like bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, antimitochondrial antibody, alkaline phosphatase, etc.
It is a procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and x-rays to diagnose and treat problems in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas.
It is an X-ray test that is performed to visualize and assess the biliary ducts for detecting any obstruction in it.
A liver biopsy involves collecting a sample of tissue from the liver to look for signs of damage or disease. This procedure is performed by inserting a thin needle through your skin and into your liver.
A liver transplant is a surgical procedure to replace a diseased liver that can no longer function properly with a healthy liver that is obtained from a living or deceased donor. It is mostly performed in patients with end-stage liver disease. The conditions that lead to end-stage liver disease are cirrhosis, acute hepatic necrosis, biliary atresia, viral hepatitis, metabolic diseases, primary liver cancers, and autoimmune hepatitis.
A Pancreas transplant is a surgical procedure to implant a healthy pancreas from a donor into a person with failed or diseased pancreas. Most often, it is the key treatment option for people with type 1 diabetes. It is also performed for people with severe kidney damage, consistently poor blood sugar control, Type 2 diabetes, and frequent insulin reactions. If kidneys are damaged by diabetes, then the pancreas transplant can be done in conjunction with a kidney transplant.
Robotic surgery is a type of minimally invasive procedure that allows doctors to perform surgery using tiny surgical instruments attached to a robotic arm. This robot-assisted technology helps doctors to perform many types of complex liver procedures with higher precision, magnification, flexibility and control than that with traditional techniques. Patient benefits of this surgery are less blood loss, less scarring, and faster return to life.
ERCP is a procedure to examine, diagnose and treat problems of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas. It involves the usage of x-rays and upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy - a long, flexible tube – to visualise and study the organs. An ERCP can be performed to find the cause of unexplained abdominal pain, jaundice, blockages or stones in the bile ducts, narrowing of the pancreatic ducts, fluid leakage from the bile or pancreatic ducts, tumors and infection in the bile ducts.
Splenectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the spleen, a fist-sized organ that sits under the left rib cage near the stomach, from the body. This procedure can be performed as a traditional open surgery or a laparoscopic or minimally invasive surgery based on your health status. You may need to have your spleen removed if you have an enlarged or ruptured spleen or if the spleen is damaged by an injury or affected by cancer or severe infection. Spleen removal is also necessary if you have a severe blood disorder that doesn’t respond to other treatments.
TPC is a procedure that is employed to visualize and examine the bile ducts. During this procedure, a small needle is inserted through the skin into the liver to reach the bile ducts, depositing a radio-opaque dye. Then, X-rays are taken and evaluated. It demonstrates the indirect effects of cancer, blockages and dilatations of the bile ducts, and the presence of stones in the duct. This procedure also helps with the drainage of infected bile, dilation of benign biliary strictures, placement of a stent across a malignant stricture, and extraction of biliary tract stones.
Cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ in the upper abdomen. Most often, the gallbladder is removed by inserting a tiny video camera and special surgical tools through small incisions in the abdomen. This procedure is performed to treat gallbladder inflammation, gallstones in the gallbladder, gallstones in the bile duct, pancreas inflammation due to gallstones, and large gallbladder polyps.
Surgery gives the best chance for curing people with solid tumors affecting the bile duct, gall bladder, liver, and pancreas. During the surgery, the entire tumor will be completely removed by surgical oncologists. For more-advanced tumors, a large section of the nearby surrounding normal tissue will be removed as well. This is performed to minimize the risk of leaving abnormal tissue behind and to avoid tumor reoccurrence.
Fortis Hospital Mulund
Senior Consultant & Chief Surgeon - Liver Transplant & HPB Surgery