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Clinical Hematology



What is blood transfusion?

Blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or blood products (Red blood cell, platelet, and plasma) is transferred into one's body intravenously. This potentially life-saving procedure is performed in patients who have experienced severe blood loss due to surgery, injury, disease or bleeding disorders. During a blood transfusion, a small needle is inserted into one of the blood vessels in the arm or hand and blood is transferred from a bag through a rubber tube.

What is immunotherapy?

Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that boosts the body's natural defences to fight cancer. It uses substances from living organisms to improve or restore immune system function. It works by educating the immune system to find and attack the cancer cells and stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells and their spread. Immunotherapy can be administered in many ways - intravenously, orally, topically (via creams) or intravesically. 

What is stem cell transplant?

Stem cell transplantation is a procedure in which a patient receives healthy stem cells to replace damaged stem cells. Usually, it is performed to treat multiple myeloma, leukaemia, some types of lymphoma that affect the blood and lymphatic system. It can also be used to treat autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and hereditary blood disorders such as sickle cell anaemia. It can be performed as an Autologous transplant (usage of own stem cells) or Allogeneic transplantation (usage of another person’s stem cells).

What causes bleeding disorders?

Most of the time leading disorders are inherited that is they are hereditary. Some types of blood disorders can occur even if the parents did not have a medical history of the same. In certain cases, blood disorders are caused due to conditions such as liver disease, kidney disease or even due to the side effects of certain medications such as blood thinners, long-term antibiotics or an imbalance in the levels of thyroid hormone in the body.

How are bleeding disorders diagnosed?

The team of haematologists are adept at diagnosing all types of leading disorders. During an evaluation, the doctor will discuss the symptoms and any possible history of bleeding disorder in the family. A thorough physical examination will also be performed. Blood tests are conducted to check for anaemia due to blood loss and to evaluate the number of platelets and white blood cells in the blood. Tests are also performed to determine the functioning of the liver and kidney and to assess for any existing blood clotting problems. 

What is a blood disorder?

Blood disorders are conditions which prevent the blood from performing its bodily functions. Some blood disorders can be caused due to genetic history, medications or lack of nutrition. Fortis Hospital Mumbai has been the best hospital for blood disorders in Mumbai for the last several years. The haematology department of Fortis Hospitals is adept in the diagnosis and management of multiple types of blood disorders across all age groups.

What are the common symptoms of blood disorders?

Usually, the symptoms of a blood disorder are dependent on the type of organ affected as well as the extent and severity of the condition. Some of the most common symptoms of blood disorders include delayed wound healing, frequent infections unexplained weight loss and exhaustion. The Haematology Department at Fortis Hospital Mulund is the best in Mumbai to successfully manage and treat the symptoms and causes of blood disorders.

What blood disorders are most common in babies?

There are different types of blood disorders that can occur in children ranging from very mild to life-threatening. The most common types of bleeding disorders occurring in babies include sickle cell disease, thalassaemia, childhood anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, congenital sideroblastic anaemia, and childhood red blood cell disorders. The haematology clinic in Mumbai at Fortis Hospital has some of the city's leading haematologists and highly trained healthcare providers who specialize in diseases of the blood and have several years of experience in the treatment of multiple types of blood disorders.

Are all blood disorders cancerous?

There are multiple types of blood disorders affecting children and adults. Some of serious blood disorders such as aplastic anaemia affect the bone marrow but do not become cancerous. Other blood cancers are related to blood disorders such as multiple myeloma. And some cancers are not specifically blood cancers but they do affect the bone marrow. Some of the non-cancerous blood disorders include aplastic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia and sickle cell anaemia.

What is the most commonly occurring type of blood disorder?

Anaemia is a condition in which the blood does not have enough healthy red blood cells and this is the most commonly occurring blood disorder. This condition is caused due to a lack of red blood cells or dysfunctional red blood cells present in the body. This result in a reduction of oxygen flow to the organs of the body. Some of the common symptoms of anaemia include fatigue, shortness of breath, dizziness, lightheadedness or an irregular fast heartbeat.

What is flow cytometry?

Flow cytometry is a method that uses laser-based technology to detect, identify, and count specific cells in the blood and bone marrow.  This method is used in patients with various diseases like leukaemia’s and lymphomas, and haematological malignancies. It also helps with the detection of drug-resistant leukemic cells, and the study of platelets. 

What is bone marrow transplant?

A blood or bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces abnormal blood-forming stem cells with healthy cells. It is performed in patients whose bone marrow is not healthy enough to function properly due to chronic infections, disease, or cancer treatments. After receiving a successful Blood and bone marrow transplant, the body can produce enough white blood cells, platelets, or red blood cells to avoid infections, bleeding disorders, or anaemia.

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