Ophthalmology Care - Diagnosis & Treatment At Fortis Hospitals Mumbai
Ophthalmology Care - Diagnosis
A regular eye examination is vital to good vision and to achieving your full potential in everything you do. Many eye conditions can progress for years with no symptoms or indication that vision is being gradually endangered. We, at Fortis, offer a variety of tests to confirm a problem or to determine the extent or severity of the eye disorder. We facilitate comprehensive eye examination through multiple diagnostic tests that include routine eye exam for cataract, visual acuity testing, tonometry, slit lamp exam, eye culture, optical coherence tomography, corneal topography, dilated eye exam, fluorescein angiogram. Two of the important eye examinations are described below.
Visual Acuity Testing
A visual acuity test assesses how well you can see at a standardized distance. Eye doctors have determined what “normal” vision is when reading at this distance and compare this with your vision.
To conduct the test, your doctor uses an eye chart positioned 20 feet away that displays rows of letters in increasingly smaller sizes. Your doctor asks you to read as many of the lines as you can without squinting, sometimes while covering one eye. If you can see all the letters clearly, you are considered to have 20/20 vision.
The doctor may also ask you to read a few lines from a preprinted card or sheet of newspaper. This simple test gives the specialist information about how well you can see close up and helps to confirm a diagnosis of refractive error.
Routine Eye Exam for Cataract
Our ophthalmologists can diagnose a cataract during a routine eye exam. First, your doctor may ask you about your symptoms and any recent changes in your vision. To detect a cataract, your ophthalmologist puts eye drops into your eye to dilate, or widen, the pupil. This allows your doctor to clearly view the lens of the eye and the retina. If a cataract is found, your doctor considers its size, your age, and your overall health in determining if treating the cataract with surgery might be the right option for you.
Depending upon the outcome of the diagnosis any one of the below treatment options will be suggested;
- Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
- Cataract Surgery
- Corneal Transplant
- Lasik Surgery (Bladeless)
- Dry eyes
- Eye Movement Disorders
- Proptosis (bulged eyes)
- Tear duct surgery
- Oculoplastic Surgery
- Orbital Trauma and Fractures
- Refractive Surgery
- Retinal Surgery
- Squint Surgery
Ophthalmology Care - Treatment
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Age-related macular degeneration is the deterioration of the macula, the central portion of the eye’s retina. It causes vision loss in the center of the field of vision. Though macular degeneration is associated with aging, it can also occur due to smoking, obesity, hereditary factors, and cardiovascular disease. Its symptoms include a blurry spot in the field of vision, the need for brighter lighting, difficulty adapting to low lights, and trouble recognizing faces. Most often, treatment for macular degeneration includes surgery to help improve the vision and Photocoagulation to destroy the abnormal blood vessels in the retina.
Cataract surgery is a procedure to remove the natural lens of the eye and replace it with an artificial lens. This surgical procedure is performed to treat cataracts, a condition that causes clouding of the lens of the eye and leads to dim or blurry vision. It is a common and safe procedure to restore and improve the vision which is lost due to cataracts and reduce the dependence on eyeglasses as well.
A cornea transplant is a surgical procedure to replace the diseased or scarred corneal tissue with healthy tissue from a donor. Most often, this procedure is performed to restore the vision that is lost due to damaged cornea, the clear front layer of the eye. It can also be used to relieve pain and other signs associated with various conditions of the cornea including Clouding of the cornea, Swelling of the cornea, Corneal ulcers, Thinning of the cornea, Cornea scarring, cornea that bulges outward and problems caused by previous eye surgery.
Lasik Surgery (Bladeless)
Lasik surgery is a type of refractive surgery that is performed to correct vision problems by reshaping the cornea, the clear tissue at the front of the eye. It is carried out in people who are tired of wearing glasses or contact lenses for the correction of one of the vision problems like astigmatism, near-sightedness, and farsightedness. In traditional Lasik surgery, the surgeon uses a microkeratome blade to reshape the cornea. Today, traditional Lasik surgery is replaced by bladeless Lasik surgery, where a special type of cutting laser (instead of a microkeratome blade) is used to precisely change the shape of the cornea.
Dry eye is a condition in which the eyes don’t have enough tears for its lubrication, moisturization and nourishment. It occurs due to decreased tear production, increased tear evaporation, or imbalance in tear composition caused by allergies, aging, not blinking enough, long-term contact lens wear, laser eye surgery, wind, smoke or dry air. Its symptoms include burning sensation, pain, and redness in the eyes, stringy mucus in or around the eyes, sensitivity to light, blurred vision or eye fatigue. Medication to increase the amount of tears in the eyes and tear duct plug to block the drainage holes in the corners of the eyes are the two common treatments for dry eye. In severe cases, surgery can be performed to permanently plug the drainage holes.
Eye Movement Disorders
Eye movement disorders are a group of disorders that occur when there is a problem with the muscles that hold the eye in place and control its movement. The two common eye movement disorders are Strabismus and Nystagmus. In Strabismus, the eyes do not get aligned properly and point in different directions. In Nystagmus, the eyes make repetitive and uncontrolled movements resulting in reduced vision. Depending on the severity and cause of the condition, treatment can include eye exercises, corrective lenses and surgery on certain eye muscles.
Proptosis (bulged eyes)
The bulging or protrusion of one or both of the eyes is Proptosis. Most often, it is caused by a thyroid condition called Grave’s disease. Other potential causes are injury to the eyes, bleeding behind the eyes, infection of the tissue in the eye socket, abnormally shaped blood vessels behind the eyes and metastatic cancerous tumours. Its primary symptom is an abnormal protrusion of the eyes. Other symptoms include discomfort, scarring, difficulty moving the eyes, and dryness of the cornea. Depending on the cause, doctors may prescribe eye drops, antibiotics, or eye surgery to treat this condition.
Tear duct surgery
Tear duct surgery is a procedure to open a blocked tear duct. A tear duct can get blocked due to various reasons like anatomical problems, chronic nasal infections, obstruction from a tumor, trauma to the nose, conjunctivitis, or nose polyps. This results in a lot of tearing or discharge from the eye. Tear duct surgery opens the passageway for tears to drain out again.
Oculoplastic surgery is a type of surgery which is performed on the orbit (eye socket), eyelids, tear ducts, structures surrounding the eyeball and the face. This surgery can be used to correct a medical problem or for cosmetic reasons. Ptosis, eyelid malposition, eyelid reconstruction, eyelid lesions, Bell's palsy, eye socket reconstruction, eyelid lift, double eyelid surgery are some surgical procedures which are performed most often.
Orbital Trauma and Fractures
An orbital Trauma and Fracture occurs when one or more of the tissues and bones around the eyeball (eye socket) damage due to a hard blow to the face. This kind of injury causes pain in and around the orbit, bleeding from lacerations, facial numbness, bruising, swelling, and changes in vision. The treatment depends on the location and severity of the damage and fracture. Ice packs, antibiotics to prevent infection and decongestants may help in mild cases. In severe cases, eye surgery to correct the vision problems, and plastic and reconstructive surgery for cosmetic reasons may be performed.
Refractive Surgery is a type of eye surgery which is used to improve the refractive state of the eye by reshaping the cornea, the front portion of the eye. It is performed in patients who wish to decrease or eliminate their dependency on glasses or contact lenses. It can help correct some of the common vision problems like myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia and astigmatism. The most widely performed refractive surgery is LASIK, where a special type of cutting laser is used to reshape the cornea.
Retinal Surgery is a type of surgery to treat a torn or detached retina. Retinal detachment occurs when the retina is pulled away from its normal position at the back of the eye. Symptoms of the detached retina are flashes of light, darkening of the peripheral (side) vision, and small spots drifting through the field of vision. Retinal surgery can be performed as laser surgery, Cryopexy, or Pneumatic retinopexy.
Squint surgery is a type of eye surgery which is performed on extraocular muscles to correct misalignment of the eyes. It is used to treat squint, a condition in which the eyes don't look in exactly the same direction at the same time. This is a common eye operation which involves loosening, tightening or repositioning one or more of the eye muscles on one or both eyes. It improves eye alignment, decreases diplopia or double vision, decreases eye fatigue, and also provides a cosmetic growth.