Barrett's oesophagus is a condition in which the mucosal cells on the inner lining of the lower end of oesophagus undergo abnormal changes, from normal stratified squamous epithelium to simple columnar epithelium. Being overweight, current or past smoking, being a man, being white, chronic heartburn and acid reflux are said to contribute and increase the risk of Barrett's oesophagus. The presence of Barrett’s oesophagus also increases the risk of developing oesophageal cancer by many-folds.
Celiac disease is a serious autoimmune disease in which the ingestion of gluten leads to inflammation and damage of the small intestine. The most common symptoms of celiac disease are abdominal pain, diarrhoea, bloating, gas, fatigue, weight loss, anaemia, constipation, depression, itchy rash, bone or joint pain, heartburn and mouth ulcer. Eliminating all forms of gluten from the diet can help manage the symptoms and heal the inflammation. This disease runs in families (hereditary) and can develop at any age.
Diverticulitis is an infection or inflammation of the pouches that protrude outward from the wall of the colon. This condition can be acute or chronic and brings signs and symptoms such as fever, severe abdominal pain or tenderness (usually on the left side), nausea and vomiting and changes in bowel habits. The chances of getting diverticulitis increase with age and is more common among people older than 40.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
GERD is a digestive disorder that occurs when the acidic content of the stomach flows back into the oesophagus, the tube which connects the mouth and stomach. The most common symptom of GERD is a burning sensation in the chest called heartburn. The other possible symptoms are chest pain, nausea or vomiting, difficulty or pain when swallowing, bad breath, respiratory problems and sensation of a lump in the throat.
Hiatal Hernia occurs when a portion of the stomach, usually its upper part, pushes into the chest area through an opening in the diaphragm. It can be caused by changes in the diaphragm, application of intense pressure on the surrounding muscle while coughing, vomiting, or exercising and being born with an unusually large hiatus (opening in the diaphragm). It is more common among people who are obese and over 50 years of age.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term describing two conditions that are characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. The two conditions are Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Ulcerative colitis affects the inner lining of the large intestine and rectum by causing irritation, inflammation, and ulcer. Crohn’s disease affects any part of the digestive tract, from mouth to anus, - the most common being the final section of the small intestine and the colon.
Oesophagitis is a condition that is characterised by the inflammation or irritation in the lining of the oesophagus, the tube that connects the mouth and the stomach. Causes of Oesophagitis include acid reflux (stomach acids flowing up into the oesophagus), bacterial or viral infections, allergies and side effects of certain medications. Its symptoms include difficult or painful swallowing, chest pain, bloating, unpleasant taste in the mouth, swallowed food getting stuck in the oesophagus, etc.
Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the inner lining of the digestive system - most often in the stomach, lower oesophagus, or small intestine. Peptic ulcers can be of two types – 1. Gastric ulcers that develop inside the stomach. 2. Duodenal ulcers that develop inside the upper portion of the small intestine. Stomach pain is the most common symptom of a peptic ulcer, which can be further worsened by the acids in the stomach.
Pouchitis is an inflammation or swelling in the lining of the pouch, which has been created during a surgery to store and eliminate stools, when it gets infected or inflamed. This inflammation can cause blood in the stool, straining during defecation, abdominal pain, joint pain, faecal incontinence, night time stool leakage, and fever. Though the exact cause of Pouchitis is not clear, it mostly occurs in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Rectal Prolapse occurs when the rectum (a part of the large intestine's lowest section) slips or falls from its normal position within the pelvic area. Feeling a bulge outside the anus, pain in the anus or rectum, bleeding from the rectum, and a red mass outside the anal opening are some of the symptoms of rectal prolapse. This condition is common among adults and more prevalent in women than men.
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that occurs when the lining of the large intestine and rectum gets inflamed, resulting in tiny sores called ulcers. Its occurrence is identified by symptoms such as diarrhoea, abdominal pain, rectal pain and bleeding, urgency to defecate, weight loss, fatigue and fever. However, depending on the severity of inflammation and the place of its occurrence, these symptoms can vary.
Whipple’s disease is a bacterial infection that most often affects the digestive system. It can also spread to other parts of the body like heart, lungs, brain, joints, skin and eyes. Its signs and symptoms include diarrhoea, abdominal cramping, weight loss due to mal-absorption of nutrients, fever, fatigue and anaemia. Although a relatively rare disease, it can be progressive, fatal and life-threatening.
The subspecialty of Onco-Gastroenterology is dedicated to preventing, diagnosing, treating, and managing a group of cancers that affect the GI tract. Stomach cancer, bile duct cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, gallbladder cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, renal cancer and anal cancer are some of the cancers which affect the GI tract and reduce the quality of life in patients. These cancers are really complex and both men and women can be their victims.
The subspecialty of Paediatric Gastroenterology at Fortis provides comprehensive care and treatment across the entire spectrum of diseases affecting the digestive tract in the new-borns, toddlers, adolescents and teens. With extensive expertise and years of experience, our paediatric gastroenterologists create a friendly environment for the young patients and constantly focus on providing the most suitable care to diagnose and treat a variety of gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders, from simple to the most complex ones.
At Fortis, the Department of Gastroenterology provides specialised diagnostic services to diagnose and treat patients who suffer from gastrointestinal diseases or disorders and who report unexplained symptoms in their GI tract. Housing the most advanced facilities and equipping the latest cutting-edge equipment, the department conducts a wide array of gastrointestinal diagnostic tests and procedures which can range from simple to complex and invasive to non-invasive.
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
- Minimally invasive anti-reflux surgery
- Oesophageal manometry
- Bariatric surgery
- Rectal prolapse surgery
- Robotic surgery
- Surgery for solid tumours affecting the digestive system