Diabetes requires constant monitoring and regular check-ups as it is an acute and long-lasting condition with its share of additional health complications. Many things may go wrong in the prediabetes stage which can lead to the patient developing diabetes in the future. The most common forms of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. However, there is another form of diabetes known as gestational diabetes that affects women during their pregnancy. Fortis Hospital, Mumbai is a leading centre for diabetes management and is able to offer comprehensive treatment in the following areas of care:
Addison's disease is a rare disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands don’t produce enough of the steroid hormones cortisol and aldosterone due to damage of the adrenal cortex. Its signs and symptoms may include muscle weakness, weight loss, abdominal pain, low blood sugar levels, salt craving, decreased appetite, nausea and vomiting. If left untreated for a long time, this disease can lead to Addisonian crisis which is fatal and life-threatening.
Diabetes (Type 1, Type 2, gestational)
Type 1 diabetes mostly develops in children and young adults of any age and therefore is popularly known as ‘juvenile diabetes’. This is a more severe form of diabetes, where the affected is dependent on insulin to manage the condition.
Type 2 diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes is the most common form of this chronic condition that affects adults. It typically develops in both men and women beyond the age of 35 and above. But, in recent times, more and more younger adults are now being affected by this serious health hazard too.
Many women during their pregnancy develop another temporary form of blood sugar known as gestational diabetes. The blood sugar levels tend to increase drastically and so their bodies are unable to generate adequate amounts of insulin in order to transport the glucose to into the body’s cells. In due course of time, this leads to rising levels of sugar in the body. Gestational diabetes can be controlled and managed throughout the pregnancy period with the right diet and exercise. 10% to 20% of pregnant women with gestational diabetes may require some form of blood sugar controlling medicines. If the condition remains undiagnosed, it may put the child at risk during the birthing process.
Hypoglycaemia occurs when blood glucose (sugar) levels drop too low - below 4 mmol/L (72mg/dL). Most often, it occurs due to the side effect of medications used to treat diabetes. (It can also occur in people without diabetes). The other possible causes are certain medications, insulin overproduction, hormone deficiencies and excessive alcohol use. Low blood sugar can bring symptoms like dizziness, hunger, sweating, fatigue, blurred vision, convulsions, pale skin and rapid heartbeat.
A condition that enlarges the thyroid gland and causes a lump in the front of the neck is Goitre. The primary cause of this condition is Iodine deficiency. Other possible causes are Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s disease, Thyroid cancer, inflammation, nodules and pregnancy. The primary symptom of this condition is noticeable swelling in the neck. Other symptoms include a tight feeling in the throat, coughing, hoarseness, difficulty swallowing and difficulty breathing.
An autoimmune disorder that causes overproduction of thyroid hormones is Grave’s disease. This disease is one of the main causes of hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces excessive hormones. Common symptoms of Graves' disease are fatigue, hand tremors, weight loss, nervousness, anxiety and irritability, enlargement of the thyroid gland, intolerance to heat, rapid heart rate, and muscle weakness.
Hyperthyroidism occurs when there is excessive production of the hormone thyroxine by the thyroid gland. Grave’s disease is the most common cause of Hyperthyroidism. Other causes are excess iodine, hyper functioning of Thyroid nodules, and Thyroiditis. Its common signs include excessive sweating, heat intolerance, nervousness, fatigue, weight loss, increased appetite, brittle hair, irregular heartbeat, hair loss, nausea and vomiting.
Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the body’s needs. Common causes of this condition are autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatments, radiation therapy, surgical removal of the thyroid and certain medications. Its signs and symptoms can differ from person to person. For most people, the symptoms are weight gain, fatigue, dry skin, constipation, muscle weakness, feeling cold, thinning hair, slowed heart rate, depression and impaired memory.
Osteoporosis is a condition that causes bones to become weak and brittle and increases their susceptibility to fracture. The likelihood of osteoporosis development depends partly on the bone mass attained in the youth. The higher the bone mass, the lower the likelihood of osteoporosis development. Its risk factors are age, menopause, hormone levels, dietary factors, certain medications, and a sedentary lifestyle. Some of its symptoms are back pain, a stooped posture, and loss of height over time.
The softening of the bones is Osteomalacia. Most often, it occurs because of severe vitamin D deficiency. It can also result from certain surgeries, Celiac disease, kidney or liver disorders, and medications to treat seizures. The softening of bones can develop symptoms such as bone pain (especially in the hip), muscle weakness, and dull, aching pain in lower back, pelvis, hips, legs and ribs.
Paget's disease is a disorder of the bone that affects the bone's normal recycling process, removing of old bones and replacing them with new ones. Most commonly it occurs in the pelvis, skull, spine and legs. Over time, this disease can lead to weakness in the bones, arthritis, bone pain, deformities, and fractures. The risk of developing this disease increases with age and if any family members have it.
Rickets is a childhood bone condition in which the bones soften and weaken due to lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It can also be passed down to the children from their parents through genes. Signs and symptoms of this disorder are bone pain or tenderness, bowed or curved legs, bones that grow slowly, muscle weakness, an unusual shape of the ribs and breastbone, a large forehead or abdomen, soft and weak bones, dental cavities and irregularities.
Thyroiditis is the inflammation or swelling of the thyroid gland. It is of different types and most types lead to over- and under-production of thyroid hormones. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, sub-acute thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, silent (painless) thyroiditis, radiation-induced thyroiditis, and acute or infectious thyroiditis are the different types of thyroiditis that cause thyroidal inflammation. Although anyone can get thyroiditis, it is more common in women.
Cushing syndrome is when the body is exposed to abnormally high levels of the hormone cortisol over a long period of time. There are a variety of reasons for the production of high levels of cortisol including high stress levels, athletic training, malnutrition, alcoholism, and depression. Common signs of this syndrome are weight gain, fatty deposits, pink or purple stretch marks on abdomen, thighs, breasts and arms, acne, fatigue, and muscle weakness.
Hypopituitarism is an uncommon condition that occurs when the pituitary gland doesn't produce enough of certain hormones. Head trauma or injury, brain surgery, brain tumor, radiation therapy to the brain, stroke, tuberculosis, tumors of the pituitary gland, and certain medications can cause such hypo secretions. The symptoms of this condition depend on which hormones the pituitary gland is not producing enough of and to what degree. For instance, hypo secretion of the luteinizing hormone causes problems with fertility, puberty, and menstruation in women.
Endocrine disorders involving the eye can cause vision problems. Most common endocrine diseases where eye involvement is significant include diabetes and Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Severe diabetes may lead to Diabetic eye disease, a general term for a group of eye problems that includes diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular oedema, cataracts, and glaucoma. These conditions often create a blurred vision and in some people they even cause blindness. In Graves' ophthalmopathy, the muscles and tissue around the eyes are affected. This can damage the eyes and lead to poor vision or loss of vision.
Hypogonadism is when the sex glands (gonads) produce little or no sex hormones. In men, these glands are called testes and in women, they are called ovaries. Hypogonadism can result when the ovaries or testes themselves do not function properly or the centres in the brain (hypothalamus and pituitary) that control the gonads do not function properly. Symptoms of hypogonadism differ in men and women. Some symptoms common in both are hot flashes, loss of body hair, and low or absent sex drive.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
PCOS is a hormonal condition in which the ovaries produce a high amount of androgens, the male sex hormones that are generally present in small amounts in women. This condition causes infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods, hair growth on the face and body, acne, weight gain, male-pattern baldness and long-term health problems like heart disease and diabetes. This condition can also affect women's ability to have a child by making it harder for them to get pregnant.
Menopause that happens before the age of 40 is premature menopause. It can be caused by a medical condition or treatment. Other possible factors are having a surgery to remove the ovaries, having a surgery to remove the uterus, and having a family history of menopause at an early age. The symptoms of premature menopause include many of the natural menopause symptoms like hot flashes, vaginal dryness, difficulty sleeping, emotional changes, headaches, breast tenderness, changes in sex drive, weight gain and hair loss.
The subspecialty of Paediatric Endocrinology at Fortis offers comprehensive diagnosis and treatment care across the entire spectrum of endocrine diseases, disorders and dysfunctions in children and adolescents. Our team works towards diagnosing hormone problems in children at an early stage and treating them appropriately with gold standard treatment modalities to prevent any long-term complications and permanent disabilities.
Comprehensive multi-system diabetes testing
Fortis provides comprehensive multi-system diabetes testing facilities to evaluate the presence or advance of diabetes in people with symptoms of diabetes, by accurately measuring the amount of sugar or glucose in the blood. Our diabetes care team diagnose all types of diabetes by performing a wide range of tests like random blood sugar test, fasting blood sugar test, oral glucose tolerance test, urine tests, and gestational diabetes tests (in pregnant women).
CT/MRI scan for pituitary
A CT scan uses a computer and rotating X-ray machine to create cross-sectional images of the pituitary gland. These images can provide more detailed information about the soft tissues and blood vessels than normal X-ray images. Most often, CT scans are performed to find the tumors of the pituitary gland. For much more detailed information about the pituitary gland, MRI scans are performed. MRI uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at the pituitary and help diagnose the conditions of the pituitary.
Thyroid function tests
Thyroid function tests involve a series of blood tests which are performed to measure how well the thyroid gland is working. These tests include TSH tests, T4 tests, and T3 tests. Interpretation of these test results helps to find out whether the individual has a thyroid disorder, how severe it is, and how to treat it. It is to be noted that these tests are influenced by certain medications like contraceptive pill, steroid hormones, anti-inflammatory medications and illnesses like heart attack, serious liver disease, and kidney failure.
- Bariatric surgery
- Pancreas transplant
- Surgery for tumours of: thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, pituitary and neuroendocrine