The department has a comprehensive team of experts who are trained and experienced in Haematology, Onco- haematology and haemato-pathology, with the able 24 by 7 support of blood bank and laboratory. The team treats and manages various blood disorders like Hodgkin’s Disease, Lymphomas, anaemia, sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia, white blood cell disorders, thrombosis, to name a few.
Anaemia is a condition that occurs when the number of healthy red blood cells in the body becomes too low. This results in decreased oxygen delivery to the body’s vital tissues and organs and makes the patient feel tired and weak. The shortage of red blood cells can be caused by blood loss, decreased or faulty production of red blood cell and destruction of red blood cells. The common symptoms of anaemia include paleness of skin, headache, dizziness, cold hands and feet, light-headedness, irregular heartbeats, and shortness of breath.
Hemoglobinopathies are a group of blood disorders and diseases that affect the red blood cells. These are inherited disorders (genetic defect) and result in abnormal structure of one of the globin chains of the haemoglobin molecule. (Haemoglobin molecules in the blood consist of four haem (iron-containing) complexes and four globin chains). These genetic defects produce abnormal haemoglobin and anaemia like sickle-cell disease, congenital dyserythropoietic anemia, etc.
Haemophilia is a rare, inherited disorder in which the blood doesn't clot properly due to the absence of enough blood-clotting proteins. People with this condition experience prolonged and excessive bleeding following an injury or surgery. Its symptoms depend on the level of deficiency of the clotting protein. People with a mild deficiency bleed in case of surgery or trauma. People with a severe deficiency may bleed spontaneously for no reason. Symptoms of spontaneous bleeding include blood in urine or stool, deep bruises, bleeding gums, frequent nosebleeds, pain, swelling or tightness in joint and unexplained irritability in children.
Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Hodgkin’s disease)
Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that starts in the lymphatic system. Though the exact cause of this condition is unknown, genetic mutation of the lymphocyte (an infection-fighting cell in the blood) is said to contribute. Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin is the most common symptom of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Other possible symptoms include persistent fatigue, fever, pain in the lymph nodes after alcohol consumption, night sweats, unexplained weight loss, and severe itching.
Leukaemia is an umbrella term for a group of blood cancers that originate in the bone marrow. It causes over-production of white blood cells which are not fully developed and abnormal, leaving them unable to function as they should. The symptoms of leukaemia include excessive sweating, persistent fatigue, weakness, fever or chills, painless, swollen lymph nodes, unintentional weight loss, easy bleeding or bruising, tiny red spots in the skin and bone pain or tenderness.
Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, which is a part of the body's immune system. It’s unclear what causes lymphoma, but it begins when the lymphocyte (disease-fighting white blood cell) develops a genetic mutation. Symptoms may include painless swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin, night sweats, persistent fatigue, fever, shortness of breath, unexplained weight loss and itchy skin.
Myelodysplastic syndromes are a rare group of disorders that occur when the body does not make enough healthy blood cells. There are no known causes for some myelodysplastic syndromes. Others are caused by exposure to chemotherapy or radiation therapy, certain chemicals such as tobacco smoke, pesticides, and benzene, and heavy metals such as lead or mercury. Rare are its symptoms in the early stages. In the advanced stage, symptoms may include fatigue, shortness of breath, unusual paleness of skin, weakness, chest pain and dizziness - depending on the type of blood cell affected.
Myeloproliferative diseases are the diseases of the bone marrow and blood in which excess cells are produced. They can occur at any age and have no known cause. Its risk factors may include exposure to intense radiation, and petrochemicals like benzene or toluene. Many people with this disease have a mutation in the JAK2 gene, which is acquired. Myeloproliferative diseases do not cause symptoms, especially in the early stages. If symptoms occur, it may include headache, fatigue, shortness of breath, night sweats, fever, and easy bruising or bleeding.
Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell which makes antibodies to fight the infections in the body. Though the exact cause of multiple myeloma is not clear, it begins when an abnormal plasma cell rapidly multiplies many more times than it should. Symptoms of multiple myeloma include anaemia, bone tenderness or pain, weakness, bone fractures, nausea, constipation, loss of appetite, excessive thirst and frequent infections.
Sickle cell anaemia
Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited disorder in which the body has no sufficient healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. Symptoms of this disease appear at a young age, and may show up in babies as early as 4 or 5 months old. The main symptoms of sickle cell disease are excessive fatigue or irritability, pain in the chest, back, arms, or legs, frequent infections, swelling and pain in hands and feet.
Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder in which the body produces an inadequate amount of haemoglobin. This disorder occurs due to a defect or mutation in one of the genes that is involved in the process of haemoglobin production. Though symptoms of thalassemia can vary, the most common ones are bone deformities, excessive tiredness and fatigue, slow growth in children, yellow or pale skin, dark urine, poor appetite, enlarged spleen and heart problems.
Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)
The condition of low blood platelet count is Thrombocytopenia. The causes of this condition are many. They are reduced production of platelets due to infections or deficiencies, increased destruction of platelets by drugs or immune system, trap of platelets caused by enlarged spleen or pregnancy. Its symptoms include nosebleeds, bleeding gums, easy or excessive bruising, blood in stool and urine, fatigue, enlarged spleen, jaundice, heavy menstrual bleeding, and bleeding from the rectum.
Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot within a blood vessel, blocking the normal flow of blood through the circulatory system. If the blood clot forms inside a vein, it is called Venous thrombosis and if the blood clot forms inside an artery, it is called Arterial thrombosis. Symptoms of thrombosis depend on the type of blood vessel affected, the location of the blood vessel and the organ supplied by it. The most common symptoms are pain in one leg, swelling in the leg or arm, and chest pain.
The subspecialty of Paediatric Haematology at Fortis focuses on preventing, diagnosing, treating and managing the disorders and diseases of the blood in infants, children and adolescents. With an in-depth understanding of the blood-related disorders, our Paediatric Haematologists are experts in treating a wide range of conditions like inherited blood disorders, thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia, coagulation defects, auto-immune diseases affecting the blood, etc.
At Fortis, our Haematopathology team provides comprehensive care across the entire spectrum of disorders and diseases affecting blood cells, their production, and the tissues and organs such as bone marrow, the spleen, and the thymus that are involved in hematopoiesis. Our multidisciplinary team follows improved diagnosis and treatment methodologies and offers comprehensive care attuned to the unique characteristics of each disease and individual needs of the patients.
- Flow cytometry
- Blood transfusion
- Blood and bone marrow transplant
- Day care chemotherapy
- Robot-assisted procedures
- Stem cell transplant
- Targeted drug therapy
- Oncology support group