Pulmonary Tests & Procedures
Because respiratory symptoms (such as cold, cough, and bronchitis) may be associated with different diseases, your doctor will ask about your medical history to determine any underlying respiratory disease. He will discuss which diagnostic tools, tests and scans are suitable for an accurate diagnosis of your lung disease. We, at Fortis, offer every type of diagnostic testing available to assess respiratory problems, including advanced interventional endoscopy techniques that allow our doctors to see inside the respiratory tract and perform treatment procedures at the same time.
Diagnostic imaging using advanced technology is often critical to effective diagnosis of lung disease, including:
- Chest X-ray
This lets your doctor study the structure of your lungs and the condition of your thoracic cavity
- Computed tomography (CT) scan
A cross-sectional imaging tool, the CT scan offers your doctor a superior image than the traditional X-ray
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan.
The MRI offers detailed images of your lungs and chest cavity using radio frequencies and magnets
- Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
The PET scan provides an additional means of diagnosing lung cancer, using a special tracer that marks cancer cells.
- Blood Test
A blood test helps the doctor determine if a chest disorder is a result of a bacterial or viral infection
- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
An erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test is sometimes called a sedimentation rate test or sed rate test. Your doctor may order an ESR test to help detect inflammation in your body. This can be useful in diagnosing conditions that cause inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases, cancers, and infections.
- Pulmonary function test (PFT)
The doctor may conduct pulmonary function testing to determine the severity of your respiratory impairment. A key device used for a PFT is a spirometer. It uses a filtered mouthpiece attached via a tube to a spirometer device. It measures the quantity and speed of air you can exhale forcefully from your lungs. It helps your physician assess the extent of narrowing or obstruction of your airways.
- Mantoux Test (MT)
Also known as tuberculin skin test is done to see if you have ever been exposed to tuberculosis (TB). The test is done by putting a small amount of TB protein (antigens) under the top layer of skin on your inner forearm. If you have ever been exposed to the TB bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), your skin will react to the antigens by developing a firm red bump at the site within 2 days.
- Sputum Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) Smear
An AFB smear is used as a rapid test to detect mycobacteria that may be causing an infection such as tuberculosis. The sample of sputum is spread thinly onto a glass slide, treated with a special stain, and examined under a microscope for “acid-fast” bacteria.
- Sputum Culture Test for AFB
AFB cultures are used to help determine whether the TB is confined to the lungs (pulmonary disease) or has spread to organs outside the lungs (extrapulmonary disease). AFB cultures can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and can help determine when a person is no longer infectious. Though this test is more sensitive than an AFB smear, it takes longer for results to become available.
A bronchoscope is a flexible or rigid device used to see the inside of the lungs. The flexible bronchoscope is a thin tube passed through the mouth or nose, down the trachea and into the lungs. It involves the examination of air passages for detecting a variety of respiratory disorders including lung cancer
- Upper endoscopy
Endoscopy is typically used for describing medical procedures that examine internal organs with the aid of tubes, lights and cameras. The doctor will lightly sedate you and numb your throat before sliding a thin, flexible plastic tube (endoscope) down your throat. A light and tiny camera lens at the end of the endoscope lets the doctor see the surface of the esophagus, to confirm a diagnosis. The doctor may, if necessary, perform a biopsy (take a small tissue sample) using tiny tweezers (forceps) that are passed through the endoscope. This may then be examined by a pathologist to determine if the tissues are abnormal.