Respiratory Conditions Treated
At Fortis, we provide the full range of diagnostic testing and state-of-the-art treatment for diseases of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs. Our Department of Respiratory Medicine specializes in:
- Interventional Pulmonology
- Sleep Medicine
- Disorders relating to the lungs
Interventional pulmonology encompasses various pulmonary techniques to diagnose and treat lung disorders. These techniques are useful various lung diseases, which include mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy, lung cancer, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, cancer in the airways, pulmonary nodules and complex airways disease.
Interventional Pulmonology Procedures services include:
- Flexible bronchoscopy
- EBUS (Endo Bronchial Ultrasound / Bronchoscopic Ultrasound)
- Radial Probe EBUS for peripheral lung lesions
- Bronchoalveolar lavage
- Biopsy of lung or lymph node
- Airway stent (bronchial stent)
- Balloon bronchoplasty
- Rigid bronchoscopy
- Foreign body removal
EBUS – EndoBronchial UltraSound: Advanced Technology
EndoBronchial UltraSound TransBronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a special technique used to take samples of body tissue from inside the chest. Fortis Hospital, Raheja and Fortis hospital, Vashi is proud to be one of the few Hospitals in Mumbai to offer EBUS, a minimally invasive procedure that has proven highly effective.
EBUS allows physicians to obtain tissue or fluid samples from the lungs and surrounding lymph nodes in the chest without conventional surgery. The samples can be used to diagnose and stage lung cancer, detect infections and identify inflammatory diseases like sarcoidosis or cancers like lymphoma.
The physician can perform needle aspiration on lymph nodes using a thin flexible bronchoscope inserted via the patient’s mouth into the lungs. No incisions are necessary.
EBUS provides real-time imaging of the surface of the airways, blood vessels, lungs and lymph nodes. These images of the region between the two lungs (the mediastinum) are obtained using an ultrasound probe attached to the bronchoscope. The improved images allow for easy viewing of difficult to reach areas and to access more and smaller lymph nodes for biopsy with an aspiration needle. The accuracy and speed of the EBUS procedure lends itself to rapid pathologic evaluation.
EBUS is performed under local anesthesia and sedation. Patients recover quickly and can usually go home the same day.
Our Department of Respiratory Medicine has got a dedicated sleep laboratory to diagnose and treat various sleep related breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea.
- Obstructive Sleep Apnea
In obstructive sleep apnea the upper airway repeatedly collapses during sleep, causing a decreased airflow that stresses the heart, the body and raises blood pressure. This condition may worsen glucose control and insulin resistance, and lead to blood sugar imbalance. For some people, their airflow decreases during sleep which causes sleep disruptions and decreased sleep quality. Sleep disordered breathing may cause daytime sleepiness, headaches, lack of energy and chronic aches and pains.
Tuberculosis is a life-threatening disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria can attack any part of the body, but the lungs are most commonly affected. The disease spreads through germs in the air when a patient coughs or sneezes, speaks, spits, etc. If you have been the in same space as someone infected with tuberculosis disease, you should be tested by your doctor or the health department. However, not everyone who is in contact with an infected patient’s germs becomes sick. Latent tuberculosis infection means that a person has been in contact with the bacteria, but has not developed the disease. Tuberculosis disease means the bacteria are active and multiplying. Both must be treated. A TB skin test can diagnose the disease before symptoms begin. Specific treatment will be determined by your doctor to cure the disease and prevent its spread to other people.
Disorders Related to Lungs
The department provides comprehensive consultative evaluation and management for patients with pulmonary diseases such as
- Asthma – Acute and Chronic
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)
- Chronic Bronchitis
- Pulmonary Emphysema
- Fungal infections of the lung
- Interstitial lung diseases
- Lung Cancer
- Pulmonary embolism
- Pulmonary vascular diseases
Asthma is a chronic illness in which the airways becomes obstructed, making it difficult to breathe. There are three main types of obstruction associated with asthma:
- Swelling: The airway lining becomes inflamed and swells, causing the airway to narrow.
- Bronchospasm: The smooth muscles around the airway tighten in response to triggers such as allergens, smoke, cold air or exercise.
- Mucus: During an asthma attack, the body produces additional mucus, creating mucus plugs that can’t be cleared by coughing.
Asthma can cause wheezing, shortness of breath and coughing in response to a variety of triggers. Symptoms may vary from mild to debilitating, but proper management can help keep symptoms under control.
Asthma can affect both children and adults. Those most likely to suffer from asthma are:
- Children 5 to 17 years of age
- Residents of cities with poor air quality
- Smokers or those exposed to second-hand smoke
- People with allergies
- People with a family history of allergies and asthma
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness.
Many people mistake their increased breathlessness and coughing as a normal part of aging. In the early stages of the disease, you may not notice the symptoms. COPD can develop for years without noticeable shortness of breath. You begin to see the symptoms in the more developed stages of the disease. That’s why it is important that you talk to your doctor as soon as you notice any of these symptoms. Ask your doctor about taking a spirometry test. Key signs and symptoms of COPD are increased breathlessness, frequent coughing (with and without sputum), wheezing and tightness in the chest.
- Chronic Bronchitis
Bronchitis is inflammation of the breathing tubes. These are the airways called bronchi. This inflammation causes too much mucus production and other changes. Although there are several different types of bronchitis, the most common are acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is long-term inflammation of the bronchi. It is common among smokers. People with chronic bronchitis tend to get lung infections more easily. They also have episodes of acute bronchitis during which symptoms are worse.
- Pulmonary Emphysema
Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which the air sacs (alveoli) may be destroyed, narrowed, collapsed, stretched, or overinflated. Overinflation of the air sacs is a result of breakdown of the walls of the alveoli. It causes a decrease in respiratory function and breathlessness. Damage to the air sacs is irreversible and results in permanent “holes” in the tissues of the lower lungs.